Supply chains overlap considerably in the electronics industry, with multiple manufacturers of finished products sharing the same subcontractors and parts suppliers. Accordingly, there are fears that the introduction of independent, company-specific standards for socially responsible management will cause confusion and constitute a significant burden on companies in the supply chain. With the aim of improving processes in the electronics industry supply chain, Sony, as one of the member companies, participated in the establishment of the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) in 2004. The EICC formulated a basic code of conduct based on industry best practices and is working to develop the tools, Web-based systems, and skills development programs for suppliers that are needed to create a framework for ensuring the code is upheld. As of March 2015, the EICC consisted of over 100 participating companies from Europe, the Americas and Asia, and members included manufacturers and OEM companies. In cooperation with the Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) Supply Chain Working Group, consisting mainly of the European telecom sector and other electronics industry organizations, the EICC is currently promoting social responsibility across the global supply chain.