Sony offers various employee training programs—including general training, e-learning, and on-site training—all tailored to specific objectives. Mandatory multilevel job-specific training implemented across the entire Sony Group in Japan helps participants acquire crucial skills in a systematic effort to foster the development of the "human quotient." Sony is also expanding its menu of elective training options, consisting of lectures, correspondence courses and courses provided by affiliated training agencies, which are aimed at enhancing job performance, as well as providing support for self-learning and personal development. In fiscal 2016, human resource development expenditure per employee at Sony Corporation was about 230,000 yen. Other efforts yielding good results are training program reviews and insourcing instructors from among employees, which both help to improve the efficiency and quality of each training program.