An exceptional feature of the long-life cell developed by Sony, and of the energy storage module in which it is mounted, is the use of olivine-type lithium-ion iron phosphate as the cathode material. The positively charged material is stable, with its crystals binding together for greater strength, and it has a robust crystal structure. Even if the ambient temperature rises, it is difficult for oxygen to detach, thereby providing superior heat stability. While this material is extremely promising, it customarily presents several drawbacks and challenges when applied to secondary cells. However, Sony overcame these issues by applying proprietary material process technology and developing a suitable structure to create a cell with key advantages. Specifically, the cell realizes (1) a lifespan of more than 10 years if fully charged and discharged daily in a 23o C environment; (2) excellent safety performance based on superior heat stability; (3) rapid recharging (can be recharged to 90% capacity or more in just one hour); and (4) high scalability. In addition, since it uses iron (lithium-ion iron phosphate) - a relatively plentiful resource - as the electrode material, it achieves a much lower environmental footprint compared with batteries that use rare metals, which have extremely limited reserves and are in short supply.